OECD Pillar 2 GloBE in CEE: Preparing for a different tax future

More than 140 jurisdictions have now signed up in principle to the global minimum tax framework, representing a ground-breaking plan to update key elements of the international tax system, which is no longer fit for purpose in a global and digitalised economy.

The Pillar 2 Global Anti-Base Erosion (GloBE) rules have been developed by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to provide a common system of taxation that ensures multinational enterprises (MNEs) pay a global minimum tax (GMT) of 15% in each jurisdiction where they operate and generate income.

That is why we have developed our practical guide to Pillar 2 GloBE to support businesses to navigate their Pillar 2 journey.

Download our guide to Pillar 2 GloBE

Also, watch our introduction to Pillar 2 video to learn more about the new Pillar 2 GloBE rules:

An introduction to Pillar 2 GloBE

On 14 March 2022, the OECD published a comprehensive commentary and illustrative examples of what the implementation of the GloBE rules could look like. However, with the rules still evolving keeping track of progress is essential.

Status of implementation in Central and Eastern Europe

EU Directive 2022/2523 sets forth rules for the implementation of a global minimum level of taxation for large multinational groups and large-scale domestic groups operating in the EU (Pillar 2). The Directive transposing deadline into national legislations was by the end of 2023.

Taxpayers members of a multinational group or a large-scale domestic group located in an EU Member State, with annual revenue exceeding EUR 750 million in the last two of the four fiscal years immediately preceding the reporting year are subject to Pillar 2 obligations.

The Directive provides a mechanism based on three interdependent model rules commonly referred to as the Global anti-Base Erosion (GloBE), according to which a top-up tax should be collected in instances in which the Effective income Tax Rate (ETR) of a multinational group in a specific jurisdiction is below the Minimum Tax Rate (MTR) of 15%.

Austria passed the Minimum Taxation Act (“Mindestbesteuerungsgesetz”; MinBestG) by the end of 2023, , implementing the global minimum taxation into domestic law. The law applies to financial years beginning on 31 December 2023 or later. The global minimum taxation aims to ensure that large companies (with consolidated revenues of at least EUR 750 million) are subject to an effective tax rate of at least 15 % worldwide. Based on the corresponding EU directive and OECD workings, the Austrian Minimum Taxation Act stipulates the application of the income inclusion rule (IIR, “Primärergänzungssteuer”, PES), the undertaxed profits rule (UTPR, “Sekundärergänzungssteuer”, SES) and the qualified domestic minimum top-up tax (QDMTT, “nationale Ergänzungssteuer”, NES).

Every Austrian business unit of a covered company is generally obliged to file a minimum tax report (GloBE infomation return) with the Austrian tax office within 15 months after the end of the financial year. For years in which the global minimum tax is applied for the first time, the filing deadline is 18 months after the end of the financial year. Companies may opt to nominate one filing entity for the minimum tax report which would reduce the filing obligations for the other business units.

In Croatia, the national act implementing the EU Directive 2022/2523 has been officially ratified, and the Act came into force on 31st December 2023. The legislation closely aligns with the content of the Directive, as it has been transposed into national law with minimal deviations—essentially adopting the Directive's provisions almost verbatim.”

According to the information from the Croatian Tax Authorities, there are currently only four ultimate parent entities in Croatia whose revenue, based on consolidated financial statements, exceeds the prescribed threshold for the application of Pillar II.

In the Czech Republic, the national act implementing the EU Directive 2022/2523, namely the Act on Top-Up Taxes for large multinational groups and large domestic groups, was published in the Collection of Laws (i.e. officially ratified) and came into force on 31st December 2023. The rules in the Czech Act do not deviate in any significant way from the global rules and from their implementation through the EU Directive.

The Czech Republic implemented the rules of qualified minimum domestic top-up tax (QMDTT) in order to collect the top-up tax revenues at the local level. Although there is a little uncertainty whether the transitional safe harbour (based on the data from a qualified CbCR) implemented in the Czech Act applies on the Czech QMDTT, it is generally presumed that its application will be possible.

In Hungary, Act LXXXIV of 2023 on additional taxes ensuring the global minimum tax level and on the amendment of certain tax rules in connection therewith has been published in the Hungarian Official Gazette with an effective date of 1 January 2024. The law basically transposes the provisions of the Directive into the Hungarian legislation. Hungary implemented the rules of qualified minimum domestic top-up tax (QMDTT) in order to collect the additional tax revenues at local level. The law sets forth that in Hungary ‘covered taxes’ under the global minimum tax level legislation should practically mean corporate income tax, local business tax, innovation contribution and Robin Hood tax.  

In Poland, the government has yet to publish a bill containing domestic regulations implementing the Directive. According to press releases, Pillar 2 regulations are to be implemented in Poland only from January 1, 2025. This would mean that in 2024 the Pillar 2 regulations may apply to those companies operating in Poland, but only in the case of implementation of relevant regulations in the parent jurisdictions.

Romania transposed on 5 January 2024 the legislation on the global minimum tax in the Romanian domestic tax legislation through Law no. 431/2023.

Although the first filing deadline for multinational and domestic groups in scope is estimated for June 2026, entities should start gathering the significant amount of information necessary to determine the impact and reporting obligations at the group level and in Romania.

The Romanian tax authorities will communicate to the European Commission the option to apply the national supplementary tax (QMDTT) within 4 months from adopting Law 431/2023.

As Slovakia holds a specific position, where only a very small number of parent entities have their headquarters, the Slovak Ministry of Finance has decided to use the option given by the Directive not to start the immediate application of the Income Inclusion Rule (IIR) and the Undertaxed Profit Rule (UTPR). Instead, to benefit from the top-up tax revenues collected on the low-taxed constituent entities located in the territory of Slovakia, they elected to apply a qualified domestic top-up tax system.

In this respect, the Act on top-up tax to ensure a minimum level of taxation for multinational enterprise groups and large-scale domestic groups has been approved and became effective as of 31 December 2023. The obligation to pay the top-up tax will have the constituent entities of a multinational enterprise group or of a large-scale domestic group located in Slovakia, if the consolidated revenues of such a group in the consolidated financial statements of the ultimate parent entity are EUR 750 million or more in at least two of the four fiscal years immediately preceding the tested fiscal year or the joint ventures and joint ventures affiliates established in Slovakia, if the effective taxation of income of qualified entities located in Slovakia is lower than 15%. The first reporting and filing obligations may arise for the qualified entities during June 2026. 

In Slovenia, the National Assembly adopted the new Minimum Tax Act on 13 Dec 2023 and is more or less a direct translation of the Directive (2022/2523). The New Minimum Tax Act entered into force for financial years starting on 31 Dec 2023, bringing the effective minimal tax rate to 15% for all groups with revenues exceeding 750.000.000 EUR. The first reporting is foreseen within 15 months after the end of the reporting financial year.

Which groups will be impacted by the rules

The Pillar 2 GloBE initiative seeks to ensure that MNEs and large groups with consolidated accounting revenue globally of €750m in two of the four previous tax years pay a minimum tax of 15% in each jurisdiction they operate. More broadly, Pillar 2 GloBE will apply to those groups which already have to report under the country-by-country reporting (CbCR) rules and any entities in that group, with some exceptions.

What tax system will be put in place and how will it work?

The rules involve a system of top-up taxes paid at the parent company level if profits elsewhere within the group have been taxed below the minimum rate of 15% set. Any top-up tax not collected under an income inclusion rule (IIR) will be charged to other group entities under an undertaxed payments rule (UTPR).

In addition, a subject-to-tax rule (STTR) will allow countries to charge a top-up withholding tax on certain types of outbound payments. The rules also enable governments to introduce a qualified domestic minimum top-up tax (QDMTT) to ensure that any top-up tax due on profits is collected in the country where it is generated. In terms of calculating tax due, groups may qualify for proposed safe harbour rules whereby simplified calculations will be acceptable in the initial reporting period.

When do groups need to comply?

While the first set of Pillar 2 GloBE reporting is expected in June 2026, groups must conduct an initial reporting obligation assessment based on 2023 year-end calculations. For International Accounting Standards (IAS) reporting groups, the IAS Board proposes disclosures relating to Pillar 2 GloBE that could be required for the 2023 financial statements. The disclosures require ETR to be calculated and disclosed for each jurisdiction on both a Pillar 2 GloBE and a basic financial statements basis. 

In terms of individual jurisdiction timetables and approach, EU Member States are obliged to transpose the directive into their national law by 31 December 2023 and are expected to follow the OECD’s implementation and reporting timeframes. The UK has announced a similar implementation and reporting timeframe. However, some countries have yet to announce implementation dates or their exact approach. 

Does Pillar 2 GloBE offer any benefits?

Despite the initial complexity and increased compliance burden, the Pillar 2 GloBE rules are designed to ensure that all countries benefit from a fair share of tax, which is closely linked to the need for MNEs to improve the sustainability of business models. The ability to show more transparency on tax paid per jurisdiction is a key corporate sustainability reporting (CSR) benefit. Equally, any resulting organisational or operational decisions that encourage a local presence benefit communities and give economic security. 

From an internal perspective, Pillar 2 GloBE can also catalyse CFOs to encourage boards to invest in upscaling and enhancing current systems to automate and streamline tax collection and compliance across the group.

What are the main challenges?

As jurisdictions begin to implement the rules, understanding the compliance and fiscal impact on current arrangements is challenging, as are implementation timescales. 

As more clarification emerges from the OECD and more jurisdictions implement local laws, Heads of Tax will be under pressure to assess the impact of the new rules. With financial reporting based on 2023 year-end information, timeframes are tight, giving MNEs little time to agree on new disclosures, conduct calculations and review appropriately. In addition:

  • While safe harbour transitional rules offer a simplified approach for the first three years, full GloBE calculations are very complex and require data which is not readily available. Inaccurate or incomplete data is a further challenge for both simplified and full data requirements.
  • Groups need to assess where full calculations are required or whether simplified calculations for 2024-2026 will be acceptable.
  • GloBE rules impact many other parts of the organisation, including any necessary organisational restructuring, transfer pricing methodologies and increased compliance pressure on the audit function. 

Moving forward

First, assess whether you are within scope of the rules. For those groups that breach the €750m threshold, a high-level impact assessment should be undertaken to determine where top-up tax is due and whether you are eligible for the safe harbour transitional rules. Next:

  • Identify data sources and collection mechanisms and procedures; 
  • Determine whether computations will be carried out at the local or group level, taking into account how different jurisdictions implement the rules; 
  • Identify whether there are benefits to applying for any of the GloBE elections; 
  • Review transfer pricing methodology and adjustments; 
  • Consider whether excess tax is being suffered and restructure if appropriate. 

A process that includes identifying risks and benefits to existing functions will be key to future-proofing business operations.

Why an international approach is essential

Dealing with GloBE requires an international approach that joins the dots between how parent entities and subsidiaries are impacted based on revenue and location. As an internationally integrated partnership operating in over 90 countries and territories around the world, the ability to draw on the expertise of more than 44,000 professionals enables us to collaborate closely with impacted clients.

Having been consulted as part of the development of GloBE rules at the OECD level, and with extensive CbC reporting knowledge, our global team of experts can:  

  • assist in calculating the potential top-up tax due under existing arrangements; 
  • review your CbC reporting processes and controls;
  • assess Pillar 2 readiness and identify gaps;
  • assess safe harbour eligibility;
  • highlight key risk areas and potential Pillar 2 impact and summarise proposals and prioritisation;
  • design roadmap and implementation plans for Pillar 2 compliance and optimisation is appropriate.

Mazars is already supporting clients on their Pillar 2 GloBE journey with our Pillar 2 tool to support data point calculations and help track Pillar 2 GloBE country-by-country progress.

Contact our CEE leaders for more details